Governance and Policy


Resource Quotas

Nomad Enterprise provides support for resource quotas, which allow operators to restrict the aggregate resource usage of namespaces. Once a quota specification is attached to a namespace, the Nomad cluster will count all resource usage by jobs in that namespace toward the quota limits. If the resource is exhausted, allocations within the namespaces will be queued until resources become available—by other jobs finishing or the quota being expanded.

In this guide, you'll create a quota that limits resources in the global region. You will then assign the quota to a namespace where you will deploy a job. Finally, you'll learn how to secure the quota with ACLs.

Define and create a quota

You can manage resource quotas with using the nomad quota subcommand. To get started with creating a quota specification, run nomad quota init which produces an example quota specification.

$ nomad quota init
Example quota specification written to spec.hcl

Create a limit for the global region. Additional limits may be specified in-order to limit other regions.

$ cat spec.hcl
name = "default-quota"
description = "Limit the shared default namespace"

limit {
    region = "global"
    region_limit {
        cpu = 2500
        memory = 1000

Resource limits

When specifying resource limits the following enforcement behaviors are defined:

  • limit < 0: A limit less than zero disallows any access to the resource.

  • limit == 0: A limit of zero allows unlimited access to the resource.

  • limit > 0: A limit greater than zero enforces that the consumption is less than or equal to the given limit.

A quota specification is composed of one or more resource limits. Each limit applies to a particular Nomad region. Within the limit object, operators can specify the allowed CPU and memory usage.

Create the quota

To create the quota, run nomad quota apply with the filename of your quota specification.

$ nomad quota apply spec.hcl
Successfully applied quota specification "default-quota"!

Check for success with nomad quota list.

$ nomad quota list
Name           Description
default-quota  Limit the shared default namespace

Attach a quota to a namespace

In order for a quota to be enforced, you have to attach the quota specification to a namespace. This can be done using the nomad namespace apply command. Add the new quota specification to the default namespace as follows:

$ nomad namespace apply -quota default-quota default
Successfully applied namespace "default"!

View quota information

Now that you have attached a quota to a namespace, you can run a job in the default namespace.

Initialize the job.

$ nomad job init
Example job file written to example.nomad

Run the job in the default namespace.

$ nomad job run -detach example.nomad
Job registration successful
Evaluation ID: 985a1df8-0221-b891-5dc1-4d31ad4e2dc3

Check the status.

$ nomad quota status default-quota
Name        = default-quota
Description = Limit the shared default namespace
Limits      = 1

Quota Limits
Region  CPU Usage   Memory Usage
global  500 / 2500  256 / 1000

Notice that the newly created job is accounted against the quota specification since it is being run in the namespace attached to the "default-quota" quota.

$ nomad job run -detach example.nomad
Job registration successful
Evaluation ID: ce8e1941-0189-b866-3dc4-7cd92dc38a69

Now, add more instances of the job by changing count = 1 to count = 4 and check to see if additional allocations were added.

$ nomad status example
ID            = example
Name          = example
Submit Date   = 10/16/17 10:51:32 PDT
Type          = service
Priority      = 50
Datacenters   = dc1
Status        = running
Periodic      = false
Parameterized = false

Task Group  Queued  Starting  Running  Failed  Complete  Lost
cache       1       0         3        0       0         0

Placement Failure
Task Group "cache":
  * Quota limit hit "memory exhausted (1024 needed > 1000 limit)"

Latest Deployment
ID          = 7cd98a69
Status      = running
Description = Deployment is running

Task Group  Desired  Placed  Healthy  Unhealthy
cache       4        3       0        0

ID        Node ID   Task Group  Version  Desired  Status   Created At
6d735236  81f72d90  cache       1        run      running  10/16/17 10:51:32 PDT
ce8e1941  81f72d90  cache       1        run      running  10/16/17 10:51:32 PDT
9b8e185e  81f72d90  cache       1        run      running  10/16/17 10:51:24 PDT

The output indicates that Nomad created two more allocations but did not place the fourth allocation, which would have caused the quota to be oversubscribed on memory.

Secure quota with ACLs

Access to quotas can be restricted using ACLs. As an example, you could create an ACL policy that allows read-only access to quotas.

# Allow read only access to quotas.
quota {
    policy = "read"

Proper ACLs are necessary to prevent users from bypassing quota enforcement by increasing or removing the quota specification.

Design for federated clusters

Nomad makes working with quotas in a federated cluster simple by replicating quota specifications from the authoritative Nomad region. This allows operators to interact with a single cluster but create quota specifications that apply to all Nomad clusters.

As an example, you can create a quota specification that applies to two regions:

name = "federated-example"
description = "A single quota spec effecting multiple regions"

# Create a limits for two regions
limit {
    region = "europe"
    region_limit {
        cpu = 20000
        memory = 10000

limit {
    region = "asia"
    region_limit {
        cpu = 10000
        memory = 5000

Apply the specification.

$ nomad quota apply spec.hcl
Successfully applied quota specification "federated-example"!

Now that the specification is applied and attached to a namespace with jobs in each region, use the nomad quota status command to observe how the enforcement applies across federated clusters.

$ nomad quota status federated-example
Name        = federated-example
Description = A single quota spec effecting multiple regions
Limits      = 2

Quota Limits
Region  CPU Usage     Memory Usage
asia    2500 / 10000  1000 / 5000
europe  8800 / 20000  6000 / 10000

Learn more about quotas

For specific details about working with quotas, consult the quota commands and HTTP API documentation.